I would like more, but what can I do, “he wrote in his diary.
Vyshnya especially ruthlessly exposed the weakness of Ukrainians’ instinct of social and national unity, their anarchic pseudo-individualism, their inertia, all those anachronistic features in the psychology and thinking of Ukrainians that cost Ukraine so much and cost Ukraine a severe test of dynamic change and modernization. Vyshnya was a real fighter for the Europeanization and modernization of Ukrainians, giving a kind of humorous typology of flaws of the Ukrainian national character. Cherry remedies were “simple”. First of all, a fresh, witty, rich language in which Vyshnya (a student of Krymsky and Modest Levitsky!) Was an unsurpassed master. For this reason alone, his “smiles” cannot be called “Gubanov’s” (Moscow merchants Sitin and Gubanov became famous for publishing lubochny “Little Russian jokes”). It was primarily a vernacular, peasant language, although Vyshnya also showed a good command of literary and urban jargon. Vishny’s comedy was not a comedy of situations or masks, but a more subtle comedy – a comedy of words, play on words, jokes, aphorisms, sayings, omissions, hints, puns. He was able to grasp the anecdotal contrasts that abound in the country of built and “built” socialism. Most https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ used the simple technique of “reduction” and annoying the regime’s ruthless “reduction” of high and noisy generals, promises, slogans, programs, plans, projects – to the bare reality, to the case, to the present. In Vyshnya’s “smiles” the humor of the village seemed to be renewed, which over the centuries of its bitter social and national biography had accumulated its wise and good-natured skepticism. The tradition of the best works of Vishnya also lies in the Baroque era of nativity scenes and burlesque, when they loved to cover “high” and “low” anecdotes and wit. Master of parody, cartoon, travesty – Cherry fondly disguised as a “simpleton” who mostly agrees with everything, but from him blew that fabulous “fool” in front of which sages and kings pass. He also plays such a “simpleton” in his autobiography (My autobiography. Kharkiv, Knigospilka 1927). At the same time, Vyshnya mastered the art of “lightning” short sharp dialogue and – quite the opposite! – the subtlest lyrical nuance. He was a shrewd psychologist, was able to catch a bizarre game in a man of such complexes as fear, envy, obsession, lying, naivety, curiosity, cruelty, love … All this was built in prose miniature, created a new, pure Cherry type of feuilleton – a kind of comment with laughter. Vyshnya considered himself the heir of Kotlyarevsky, to whom he treated with the greatest piety (his travesty “Via” by Gogol-Kropyvnytsky was a great success in the 1920s). He loved Gogol very much and gave an excellent translation of his “Inspector”; also translated by Mark Twain. Apart from the genre of “smiles” and feuilleton he created, Vyshnya began to successfully create his own type of humorous essay, short story, and even short stories (“Hunting Smiles” and “Crimean Smiles”). In the “hunting story” he gave an example of a short story, the unexpected humorous end of which “removes” the entire previous elegantly lyrical plot. In the “Fair”, which is not inferior to the corresponding descriptions of Gogol, Cherry by means of language, sound and color palette gives a combination of carpet and symphony: a colorful singing sea of the Ukrainian fair. Of the several thousand “smiles” and feuilletons, Vishnya will live in literature, maybe two or three volumes of the selected one. Vyshnya did not have easy results in his life and work. “I have done little for the people! Little! I would like more, but what can I do,” he wrote in his diary. He alludes to the evil that neither Chekhov nor Twain knew, and which most oppressed and cut his talent: “The greatest evil of cosmopolitanism (Vishnya understands this term as the Central Committee of the CPSU, whose destructive role Kulik spoke of) is that they are not young “They … have been knocking down all the young literary sprouts for decades! That’s the greatest evil! “Here Vyshnya veiledly writes about the Shot Renaissance and among the cut young literary shoots he sees himself. In the 1930s, Moscow destroyed Ukrainian Soviet literature for” nationalism, “mixing in this term quite different phenomena of patriotism and chauvinism . “These fools,” writes Vyshnya in the above-mentioned diary, “who shout ‘Nationalists!’ Do not understand that I have succeeded in uniting the love of my people with the love of all the peoples of the world! “And further:” Oh, how someone will be ashamed of my suffering! Oh, how it will be! “Exactly on the 15th anniversary of the announcement in the press about the execution of 28 Ukrainian writers by a Moscow court in Kyiv on December 18, 1949, Vyshnya carefully and veiledly notes in his diary:” Why do I have to be in pain, to suffer for someone who came to literature? , my soul, my pain? Why? Why do I have such pain, not only for the “failure” in literature … What a horror that I know personally the people who created the pearls of our literature, I saw them, talked to them, one by one I sat at the table, ate, drank, laughed, joked … And then read. “The mystery of the defeats and victories of Ostap Vyshnya (Pavel Gubenko) is the problem of a spontaneous humorist in hell, in the conditions of a slave society and a” prison of nations “. After all, for his” smiles “he was punished under Article 54-8 of the Criminal Code: about terror. And he, with a stream of revolver at his temple, was forced to make “smiles” over the corpses of millions of sons of his people who fell victim to Moscow terror. How far this terrible demand for “touching satire” leaves behind Tsarina Catherine II, who instilled a specifically Russian genre of humor – “smiling satire”! What a life!? To gain the position of an intellectual, being born one of 17 children in a poor peasant family in the God-forgotten Poltava town of Gruny and up to 32 years of age not being able to pass the external examination for high school graduation.To be a non-partisan all his life – in the age of party omnipotence and tyranny, a humorist – in the age of horrors, a cap – in the ti mes of blind fanaticism, a humanist – in the age of mass organized crimes and cannibalism. To eventually become a “clown” with the authority, popularity and moral responsibility of the president, and with the rights of a concentration camp prisoner. Humor, laughter can be considered synonymous with freedom – at least the inner freedom of man. Obviously, Vyshnya possessed the secret of inner freedom in all situations, freedom from the “evil force” and his own and others. Therefore, laughter could always live in his soul – not “gallows humor” and not bilious anger – it was alien to him, and sunny sharp good humor. From this point of view, his debut as a comedian is typical. In 1919 he was a patriot of the UPR (but
none of its parties!) headed the Medical and Sanitary Administration of the Ministry of Roads of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. The entire republic, trapped on all four sides of the world by enemies, huddled in Kamianka and several adjacent areas. Paramedic Pavlo Gubenko, risking his life, personally worked on trains overflowing with typhoid patients. He helped them with medicines and funny anecdotes, which he composed and famously told. At that time, his first feuilleton, signed by Pavlo Hrunsky, appeared in the Narodna Volya newspaper. It was about Ukrainian ministries: troops – without roads, finances – without finances, military – without … But ministers did not have enough time for quarrels. Another feuilleton denounced agreements with foreign states – the UPR government for failing to see in the good words of foreign diplomats contempt for Ukraine’s independence, and foreign states for not seeing a 40-million independent nation behind the Kamenets UPR. For one such feuilleton, the newspaper’s editor was fined. Grunsky’s feuilletons immediately became popular in Kamianets, because they supplanted despair with laughter. From Vyshnya he was an impeccably faithful friend and comrade. His acquaintances say that he, like typhoid soldiers in the trains of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, saved his comrades financially and with humor in the basements of the Cheka, where he sat from late 1919 to spring 1921; and in the NKVD prison in Kharkiv, where he was held from December 26, 1933 to the spring of 1934, and in the Pechora concentration camp in 1934–43. When Maksym Rylsky was arrested in 1931, with whom Vyshnya was as close friends as Khvylovy, Kulish and Dosvitny, Vyshnya, not afraid to incur the wrath of the NKVD, rushed from Kharkiv to Kyiv to help the poet’s helpless family, and after Rylsky’s happy release from prison – took him to Kharkiv for a few weeks to visit. Few people dared to take such actions at that time of general fear, because Moscow did not forgive anyone in Ukraine for its chivalrous character. Khvylovy Vyshnya committed suicide as a terrible catastrophe – Vyshnya fought for three days and nights in his room, from the windows of which passers-by on the street heard screams and wailing. They thought he was crazy. These traits of chivalrous devotion speak for themselves about the nature of Vishnu’s humor. Nothing – Cherry was able to be ruthless and was able to kill with laughter. “The enemy must be beaten,” he wrote, quoting Gogol: “Even he who is no longer afraid of anything in the world is afraid of ridicule.” But the main source of his humor was love of life, first of all – conscious love of man. As if justifying that he had mocked his Ukrainian people so much during his life, Vyshnya wrote in the mentioned diary: the right to laugh “at one’s own, native person” is given by love. “You have to love a person. More than yourself.” And slyly adds: “To love, by the way, is a very hard job.” What pushed him to this “hard work” of a loving humorist? Here is his answer: “I just did not like sad faces, because I liked to laugh. I could not stand human grief. It oppressed me, I wanted to cry … I am a people’s servant! Footman? No, I did not move! Leader? God forbid! .. Send me, fate, strength, skill, talent, whatever you want, just so that I can do something so that my people in their titanic work, in their sorrows, sorrows, thoughts, hesitations , so that the people smile! .. so that at least one wrinkle of his hard-working, pensive face, so that at least one wrinkle is smoothed out! “The truth is for the harshest critics of Ostap Vyshnya’s defeats, but it will not explain the passions of the “clown” and the victory of the “smile” of the Shot Renaissance. The outstanding Ukrainian Soviet writer Ostap Vyshnya is widely known in Ukraine, the Soviet Union and abroad. Throughout his career, Ostap Vyshnya acted as a talented and unique artist, whose word penetrated deep into the layers of people’s lives and successfully served his uninterrupted progress.